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UBC Graduate Course - Phys 555

Accelerator Physics and Engineering: I. Electrons

PHYS 555

Course Outline (Preliminary)

Introduction to Particle Accelerators
  1. Accelerator Survey: dc, linac, cyclotron, microtron, betatron, synchrocyclotron, sychrotron (including weak focusing, betatron oscillations, emittance).
  2. Thomas cyclotron, edge focusing, radial-sector cyclotron, strong focusing, spiral-sector cyclotron, AG synchrotron, separated-function design, storage rings, colliders, light sources.
  3. Linear optics: thin lenses, dipoles (+gradient, +edges), quadrupoles, solenoids, accelerating gaps, einzel lenses.
  4. Periodic lattices: beta-functions, matrix properties, F0D0, etc.
  5. Modern cyclotrons: compact, ring, multi-stage, superconducting; FFAGs, scaling and non-scaling.
  6. Longitudinal dynamics; off-momentum orbits in synchrotrons, acceleration, phase stability.
  7. Phase stability in linacs, microtrons, SCs and FFAGs; gymnastics, bunching.
Electron Injectors
  1. The physics of space-charge dominated beams, emittance compensation, injector designs.
  2. Technology of electron sources: thermionic, photoinjectors, DC, RF, SRF guns
RF Acceleration and Beam Loading
  1. RF cavities for acceleration, pill-box cavity, accelerating voltage, peak surface fields; Figures of merit: power dissipation and quality factor, shunt impedance
  2. Mode excitation: Fundamental theorem of beam loading, monopole mode excitation by a bunch and by a train of bunches, cryogenic losses, dipole mode excitation.
  3. Coupling power to the beam: the equivalent circuit, beam loading, resonant operation, non-synchronous operation, circuit model with beam loading.
Superconducting RF
  1. Superconductivity fundamentals: the free electron model, classical and quantum mechanical descriptions, superconductivity; electrical properties, DC and RF resistance.
  2. Electrodynamics of normal and superconductors: skin depth and surface resistance of normal conductors; anomalous skin effect, perfect conductors; Meissner effect; surface impedance of superconductors in the two-fluid model; BCS treatment of surface resistance.
  3. Multipacting, thermal breakdown, field emission, the quest for high gradient.
  4. RF control and frequency issues: microphonics, Lorentz force detuning and ponderomotive oscillations, tuners, RF phase and amplitude stability requirements, RF control and feedback, Qext optimization in SRF cavities.
Beam Dynamics
  1. Wake fields and impedances.
  2. Instabilities in linacs: Beam energy spread, beam breakup.
  3. Instabilities in storage rings: Longitudinal and transverse instabilities of unbunched beams, single bunch, and multiple bunches.
  4. Instabilities in recirculating linacs: Multi-bunch, multipass beam breakup.
  5. The Vlasov treatment.
  6. Radiation from relativistic electrons; undulators.
Applications of Electron Accelerators
  1. Linacs: TRIUMF e-linac, ILC, Linac-based Free Electron Lasers (FELs): LCLS and European X-FEL.
  2. Storage rings: Canadian Light Source, B-Factories: PEP-II and KEKB.
  3. Recirculating and Energy recovery linacs: CEBAF, ERL-based FELs, ERL-based light source designs, electron-ion colliders: HERA, eRHIC, ELIC, LHeC.